Sergio Mattarella has been President of the Republic of Italy since 2015. Previously, he was Italy’s Minister of Education from July 1989 to July 1990, Deputy Prime Minister in 1998 and Minister of Defence from December 1999 until the June 2001 elections. In 2011 he was elected Constitutional Judge by the Parliament. He taught parliamentary law at the University of Palermo until 1983, when he took leave of absence upon being elected member of the Chamber of Deputies. Academically, the majority of his research has focussed on constitutional law. Born in 1941, in 1964 he obtained a Law Degree with honours from the Sapienza University of Rome.