Olivier Roy heads the Mediterranean Programme at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the EUI. A graduate of Sciences-Po, he has held academic positions at the French National Center for Scientific Research, the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) in Paris and at the University of California, Berkeley. He headed the OSCE’s Mission for Tajikistan and was a consultant for the UN Office of the Coordinator for Afghanistan. His research focuses on Middle East, Islam, fundamentalism and the relation between civil society and religions. He is presently working on ‘Islamic norms in the public sphere’, conversions and apostasy and comparative religions.