Olivier Roy heads the Mediterranean programme at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute. A graduate of Sciences-Po, he has held academic positions at the French National Center for Scientific Research, the EHESS and Berkeley University. He headed the OSCE’s mission for Tajikistan (1993-94) and was a consultant for the UN Office of the Coordinator for Afghanistan (1988). His research focuses on Afghanistan, Political Islam, Middle East, Islam in the West and comparative religions. He is presently heading the ReligioWest project, which studies the “formatting” of religions in the West.