Michelle Cayford is a PhD candidate at Delft University of Technology (Netherlands) in the Safety and Security Group in the Technology, Policy, and Management faculty. Her research is examining how to evaluate the effectiveness of surveillance technology. She has participated in the EU FP7 project SURVEILLE and has conducted research on the NSA. She has worked in the US as an intelligence analyst investigating drug-trafficking networks and with NATO in the Policy Planning Unit. She obtained her MA in International Security at Sciences Po in Paris.